Can hyperthyroidism cause infertility?

Medically Reviewed by Checkmark Medically Reviewed By: Dr. Sravanthi Sunkaraneni

Yes. Hyperthyroidism can cause infertility. An article by the International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences states that “Infertility incidence is about 5-8% in women with hyperthyroidism”.

It further states that hormonal changes affect the reproductive system in women with hyperthyroidism. Due to hyperthyroidism, there is an increase in hormones that play a role in male traits and reproductive activity, such as androstenedione and testosterone. This eventually leads to the elevation of estrogen and estradiol, which can affect their reproductive health. This elevation and a decrease in metabolic clearance of estrogen lead to higher plasma estrogen levels in women with hyperthyroidism. There also have been a few cases of elevation in serum LH, FSH, and SHBG levels, indicating dysfunction of the ovaries.

Hyperthyroidism can affect fertility even in males. A study established that males with hyperthyroidism can have a reduced sperm density, motility, and morphology and a reduced semen volume. Contrastingly, there is a reduced sperm morphology seen in males with hypothyroidism. Not just this, thyroid dysfunction can affect sexual health and cause erectile dysfunction, decreased libido, and premature ejaculation.

Research states that the thyroid hormone influences human reproduction through several mechanisms. This affects various stages of pregnancy and also acts on the oocytes, sperm, and embryo. It hampers the fertilisation, implantation, and placentation. Both types of thyroid abnormalities, namely, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can affect fertility. But there is scarce evidence in terms of the effect of fertility in hyperthyroidism. Although infertility can occur in people with hyperthyroidism, it is generally reversible upon restoration of euthyroidism (normal thyroid function).

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Disclaimer
Medical Science is an ever evolving field. We strive to keep this page updated. In case you notice any discrepancy in the content, please inform us at [email protected]. You can further read our Correction Policy here. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay seeking medical treatment because of something you have read on or accessed through this website or it's social media channels. Read our Full Disclaimer Here for further information.

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