PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome) is the most common disorder in the reproductive years because of the hormonal imbalance which happens mostly during this phase. It is mostly diagnosed in reproductive years as it is usually diagnosed when a woman is trying to conceive.
In a normal menstrual cycle, a number of eggs mature in follicles in your ovaries. The ripest egg is released into one of your fallopian tubes, where it meets the sperm if there is any. In PCOS, although the polycystic ovaries contain follicles with eggs in them, the follicles do not develop and mature properly. Therefore, there is no ovulation or release of eggs. This is called anovulation, which can only happen when women are in their reproductive years.
PCOS is one of the most common reasons for the infertility caused due to lack of ovulation in women. About 90–95% of women who seek treatment for infertility due to this condition have PCOS. Most women with PCOS have increased levels of a hormone called luteinizing hormone, which is produced in the anterior pituitary gland, and reduced levels of FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone). FSH is a hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland which promotes formation of reproductive cells. Along with this, there are elevated levels of androgens and insulin also.
These imbalances can manifest as oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea (infrequent or lack of menstruation). PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome) also leads to underproduction of estrogen and overproduction of androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) by the ovaries that can result in various symptoms including tiny cysts on the surface of the ovaries (polycysts), hair and skin.
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