Why do fair-skinned, blue and green-eyed Irish people get eye cancer more than other ethnicities?

How are Irish people with fair skin and blue or green more susceptible to eye cancer than others?
Individuals with lighter eyes are at a greater risk of developing cancer that develops in the melanin-producing cells of the eye. These cells in lighter eyes contain more pheomelanin and less eumelanin unlike in darker eyes where it is the opposite. Pheomelanin produces a toxic response to visible light causing damage to DNA and triggering the formation of cancer cells.

The incidence of uveal melanoma type of eye cancer seems common in people with green/hazel iris colour. A study has shown that the greater risk of eye cancer in light-coloured eyes mostly depends upon the type and ratio of the melanin. This study suggests light-coloured eyes have less eumelanin in melanin-producing cells and carry more pheomelanin. Eumelanin is responsible for brown colour and pheomelanin gives light colour to the eye.

The ultraviolet rays do not reach where uveal melanoma usually arises, that is the back of the eye. But visible light can penetrate the eye to reach the back of the eye. Pheomelanin can produce a toxic response to this light that can damage DNA within the melanin-producing cells to induce eye cancer. 

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