Malaria is a parasitic infection spread by female Anopheles mosquitoes, which bite humans and spread the parasite. It spreads the disease and acts as the parasite’s carrier. The two parasite species most frequently associated with renal dysfunction or failure is P. falciparum and P. malariae. Falciparum malaria is a fatal condition that can cause coma, convulsions, liver failure, and kidney failure. P. vivax, and P. ovale, are also linked to kidney problems. Given the severity of the condition, this paper provides a summary of the main conditions, causes, clinical indications, and treatments associated with malaria induced kidney illnesses.
What are the most common kidney diseases caused by malaria infections?
The three main renal diseases that can be caused by malaria are acute tubular necrosis, acute interstitial nephritis, and glomerulonephritis. There have also been reports of chronic kidney disease linked to malaria, most commonly in patients with recurrent infections. Additionally, although it is uncommon, nephrotic syndrome has been linked to P. falciparum infection.
What are the primary causes of malaria induced renal damage?
The kidneys are made up of nephrons, which are tiny renal filtering organelles. The term “nephropathy” refers to the decline in nephron function. Acute kidney infections are caused by various Plasmodium species, including falciparum and vivax. Dehydration, vomiting, and fluid loss can all lead to fluid loss and worsen kidney disease.
What clinical indicators and symptoms point to malarial renal damage?
Malaria is typically linked to chronic kidney disease in people who have experienced multiple infections. An acute kidney infection is the most common side effect of malaria, which can develop in people with the severe illness P. falciparum and even P. vivax. Increased levels of proteins, especially albumin, in the urine are a defining feature of the condition. SinceP. falciparum primarily affects red blood cells, it can cause jaundice, decreased haemoglobin concentration, decreased oxygen delivery to tissues, decreased sodium content in the blood, decreased or stopped urine production, chills, and a high temperature.
How is this renal damage caused by malaria treated?
Antimalarial medications, measures to correct water and electrolyte disturbances, fluid replacement, and other supportive therapy are all used to treat malarial renal impairment. Chloroquine is the preferred medication for treating uncomplicated malaria. Chloroquine is not effective against P. falciparum. Therefore, mefloquine, primaquine, quinine, and benflumetol should be used in falciparum therapy.
Primaquine is used to stop relapses in P. vivax and P. ovale. Antimalarial drug doses should be determined by the patient’s weight to ensure good efficacy.
Antimalarial medications are administered intravenously or intramuscularly for the treatment of severe malaria. Artesunate, which is administered for at least 24 hours, is the medication that works the best in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria.
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