It is important to recognise the burden that malaria poses on the world. Malaria symptoms most frequently include fever, headache, malaise, weakness, and gastrointestinal issues like nausea and vomiting. Patients suspecting malaria should consult a doctor right away. Malaria treatment shouldn’t begin until the diagnosis has been verified through laboratory testing. This article details the treatment of malaria.
What is referred to as malaria’s presumptive treatment?
Presumptive treatment of malaria, or treatment without the benefit of prior laboratory confirmation, should only be the option in extreme cases. For example, when there is a high degree of clinical suspicion or when there is a severe disease and no quick access to a laboratory diagnosis.
What should form the basis of malaria treatment?
Once there is a diagnosis of malaria, the appropriate antimalarial treatment must begin as soon as possible. The four important factors listed below should guide the treatment:
- Plasmodium species that are the source of the infection
- The patient’s clinical condition
- The drug susceptibility of the parasite on the basis of the region of contraction of the infection.
- Any prior use of antimalarial medications, including those used for malaria prevention.
How should malaria without complications be treated?
All patients from chloroquine-sensitive regions with uncomplicated P. malariae, P. ovale, P. vivax, and P. falciparum should receive prescribed oral chloroquine treatment. The medicine has reasonably prices, its toleration is very well and effective.
Treatment for P. falciparum, which is resistant to chloroquine, is difficult. Although, if readily available, artemether-lumefantrine and atovaquone-proguanil are the key components of the treatment plans, Additionally, mefloquine alone, quinine plus doxycycline, and pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine are available for the treatment of malaria. Chloroquine is typically an option for the treatment of simple, P. vivax infections.
What is the course of treatment for complicated or severe malaria?
Malaria that is severe or complicated is a life-threatening emergency. P. falciparum is largely responsible for its development. When possible, patients with complicated malaria should receive intravenous antimalarial treatment and stay in an intensive care unit. Because injectable artesunate reduces parasitic infection more quickly than any other antimalarials.
In addition to these, intravenous quinine is the preferred medication. Patients on these regimens should be under close monitoring for symptoms of low blood pressure or abnormal myocardial conduction. Since mixed infections are frequent, treatment of any complicated P. malariae, P. vivax, or P. ovale infection should be similar to a complicated P. falciparum infection.
How should malaria complications and relapses be handled?
Doctors may administer primaquine for infections that are a result of P. vivax or P. ovale. They may do this following a treatment for the blood-stage infection in order to eradicate these species’ dormant forms and avoid relapses of malaria.
Supportive care and treatment for malaria complications may be just as important as picking the right antimalarial. Clinicians should keep an eye out for complications in their patients and treat them as they arise. Anti-fever medications and cooling blankets should be used to treat a high fever. To avoid pulmonary oedema or renal failure, proper fluid management is crucial.’
What is the course of action for malaria when it affects expectant mothers?
A special issue is presented by malaria during pregnancy. The risk of developing severe and fatal malaria is higher in pregnant women. Pregnant women with P. falciparum infections are more likely to experience increased parasitic infection, reduced blood sugar levels, and pulmonary oedema. Prescribed antimalarial medications should be administered promptly to expectant mothers in the proper dosages.
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