How is eye cancer diagnosed, staged and treated?

What is the process of diagnosis, staging and treatment of eye cancer?
When eye cancer is suspected, a variety of tests are performed for the diagnosis beginning with a clinical examination followed by imaging studies and laboratory examination. The type of cancer is then identified and staged based on the extent and spread of the cancer cells. Treatment involves surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy based on the type of eye cancer.

Eye cancer is diagnosed through a physical exam using an ophthalmoscope, slit lamp or a gonioscopy lens. Then imaging tests such as ultrasound, optical coherence tomography (OCT), fluorescein angiography, chest x-ray, computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are performed to stage cancer. Besides this, biopsy and blood tests are also helpful for the staging of cancer. 

The iris melanoma is staged in the following way. In stage I of eye cancer, the cancer cells are only in the iris. In stage II, the cancer cells spread into the ciliary body or choroid. In stage III, the cancer cells spread into the sclera. In stage IV, cancer cells spread outside the eye. For the iris, ciliary body, and choroidal melanomas stage IV can also show cancer cells have spread to the nearby lymph nodes or distant parts of the body.

Eye cancer is mostly treated through surgery, radiation therapy, laser therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy and targeted drugs.

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